What Can I Do?

BSV Blockchain has a few properties which allow us to solve a vast number of problems across many applications. The two fundamentals are tokenization and data integrity.


BSV Blockchain is a massively scalable utxo based system. What this means is that each transaction output can be dealt with independently by different systems, without worrying about any global state. This means transaction throughput is theoretically unbounded.

There have been many token protocols defined on top of BSV over the years. The most basic way to create a token system on BSV is to simply use an Overlay Service to track specific utxos which have been "minted" as tokens via some tokenization method.

Single Use

If we don't care to track tokens beyond their first spend we could build some simple logic into an overlay which defines a the token as "any utxo which has this specific txid". That way any transaction will be accepted by the overlay so long as it is spending one of a specific set of outputs from a single transaction. You could imagine the use case is a redeemable voucher for $5 off from a local store as part of some promotion.

// minting transaction pseudocode
    version: 1, 
    locktime: 0,
    inputs: [...fundingUtxos], 
    outputs: [
            script: 'OP_DUP OP_HASH160 {pkh} OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG',
            satoshis: 1
        ... // repeated x 1000

Say it yields the txid 76730e3d92afcf6a28f8a43bb2c6783685b18170a8da31168364c7b73c9893f3 then we can set the overlay to accept transactions only if one or more inputs contain that txid.

This limits us to either knowing the desired owners of each token at the time on minting, setting the public key hash accordingly; or using a server side private key which pre-signs the utxos with sighash none & anyone can pay before delivering them to a particular owner. This allows them to pass this information around as they see fit, eventually constructing a transaction which spends the utxo using that existing signature, simply adding an arbitrary output when needed.

You can see from this simple example that the meaning of the token is defined by the issuer, and is only redeemable with them.

Multi Use

Creating tokens which can be transferred multiple times while retaining their meaning involves tracing their outputs from one to another.

This can be handled again by a simple overlay which accepts minting transactions as well as transfer transactions and burn transactions.

How you consider the tokens to exist and transfer can be in a push data denomination, or an ordinals approach.

Push Data approach

The idea here is that you mint tokens by pushing a blob of data to denominate the value the token represents while not really caring how many satoshis are associated. In other words 1 satoshi is sufficient for any denomination.

For example a JSON push data might look like:

  "sometoken": 1000

This would be pushed to the script as a blob of data which is then dropped off the stack prior to executing a regular locking script function.

Thereafter, these tokens are spendable only within the context of the token's issuing overlay. In other words, each spend needs to be send to that overlay such that the new token outputs can be noted for eventual redemption / burning at the end of the token lifecycle.

Transfer transactions would like something like:


{ "sometoken": 1000 } 1 satoshi

{ "sometoken": 600 } 1 satoshi

{ "memecoin": 234 } 1 satoshi

{ "sometoken": 300 } 1 satoshi


{ "memecoin": 234 } 1 satoshi

{ "sometoken": 100 } 1 satoshi

The simple rule being "to accept an inbound transaction it must have equal inputs and outputs of each token type.

From the minting transaction onward the issuer of the tokens keeps a working UTXO set of all their tokens, updating them as new transactions come in. This allows them to enforce rules as they deem appropriate for their particular use case.

Ordinal Approach

This would involve using the satoshis themselves to represent specific denominations and using the order of satoshis in the inputs and outputs to define where the tokens were being transfered, rather than the push data.

A transfer would then look like:


"sometoken" "1:1" 10 satoshis

5 satoshis

"memecoin" "3:1" 3 satoshis

8 satoshis

In this case, the 0th output would now contain 5 sometokens, and the 1st output would contain 5 sometokens and 9 memecoins. The push data in the inputs refers to token type and token to satoshi ratio.

Thereafter there would be no need for push data, just satoshi values, the tokens would transfer using the order of satoshis in subsequent transactions, thus offering a higher degree of privacy.

Offline Transactions

Fundamentally the benefit of tokens over account based payment systems is that each transfer is independent of all other transfers. This means you can do offline payments, chain a bunch of payments together, and then broadcast everything when you next connect to arrive at a valid confirmed state. Many people can all do this simultaneously, so there is no upper bound to the number of transactions per second which can be facilitated in this way. Payments can occur entirely P2P and settlement can be asynchronous without any underlying issue.

Bad actors cannot fake their tokens since they come with Merkle paths, so fraud is significantly more difficult. Given the time to settle is 80ms or so once connected, there's no incentive to attempt it - you don't know whether the receiving party is connected or not.

Data Integrity

BSV Blockchain provides a globally distributed timestamp server backed by proof of work. What this means is that every block added to the chain is linked to a previous block such that all history of transactions remains immutable. The security of this model is that the chain of hashes is broadly distributed, ideally to all users of the system. This constitutes a very small amount of data - 80 bytes every 10 minutes - while incorporating proof of inclusion for an unbounded number of transactions.


Broadly speaking the idea is to contain a proof that some data existed in a transaction which is submitted for inclusion within the blockchain. When a valid block is found, the transaction is in effect timestamped as having existed at that point in time at that specific block height. We can then use the transaction itself, a Merkle path, and the block header to prove it mathematically. This allows us to provide proof that the data within the transaction has not changed at all since its inclusion.

The key primitive which allows this is something called a Cryptographic Hash Function, specifically in BSV we use sha256. If we want to prove data integrity privately, we can publish a hash of the data rather than the data itself.

What this requires is a server to host the data, and a client which knows how to run the proof. The data can be stored like so:

    "data": "Enemy at the gate",
    "tx": "0100beef01fe77eb0c000e02fdd8140017...",
    "out": 0, // output index in which the hash of the data appears within the transaction

The exact format in terms of the hash algo used, where the push data is within the output, whether it's signed, can all be decided by the implementer based on their needs.

What you can then do as a consumer of the data to check integrity is make a request to the server holding this information. You retrieve the data, which you then hash and check against the transaction data to verify inclusion. Then you run transaction verification:

import { Transaction, WhatsOnChain } from '@bsv/sdk'

// some id related to the content you want
const id = '5ca05a2be61fccf24465525c4692ce92c2f67c43d5cbdd4cbc233e3ed29f4822'

// request from a data integrity overlay
const response = await (await fetch(`https://data-integrity-service.com/${id}`)).json()

// parse as a transaction using the SDK
const tx = Transaction.fromHexBEEF(response.tx)

const data = response.data
const hash = sha256(response.data)

// check if the data's hash appears in the transaction
const included = tx.outputs[response.out].lockingScript.toHex()

// Make sure the tx is really part of the blockchain.
const valid = tx.verify(new WhatsOnChain())

if (valid && included) {
    console.log(data, 'valid data timestamped in block: ', tx.merklePath.blockHeight)
} else {
    console.error('corrupt data')

WhatsOnChain provides headers in the example code above - but in an ideal world you would be checking against your own Block Headers Service. We provide free open source software which will get and maintain an independently validated chain of headers you can reference to validate data independently. This is the one thing which is actually important to distribute broadly.

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